Mechanical Engineering Paper II Syllabus

Paper – II

1. Thermodynamics, Gas Dynamics and Turbine:

  • Basic concept of First –law and second law of Thermodynamics; concept of entropy and reversibility; availability and unavailability and irreversibility.
  • Classification and properties of fluids; incompressible and compressible fluids flows; effect of Mach number and compressibility; continuity momentum and  energy equations; normal and oblique shocks; one dimensional isentropic flow; flow or fluids in duct with frictions that transfer.
  • Flow through fans, blowers and compressors; axial and centrifugal flow configuration; design of fans and compressors; single problems compresses and turbine cascade; open and closed cycle gas turbines; work done in the gas turbine; reheat and regenerators.

2. Heat Transfer:

  • Conduction heat transfer- general conduction equation – Laplace, Poisson and Fourier equations; Fourier law of conduction; one dimensional steady state heat conduction applied to simple wall, solid and hollow cylinder & spheres.
  • Convection heat transfer- Newton’s law of convection; free and forces convection; heat transfer during laminar and turbulent flow of an incompressible fluid over a flat plate; concepts of Nusselt number, hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layer their thickness; Prandtl number; analogy between heat and momentum transfer- Reynolds, Colbum, Prandtl analogies; heat transfer during laminar and turbulent flow through horizontal tubes; free convection from horizontal and vertical plates.
  • Black body radiation – basic radiation laws such as Stefan-Boltzman, Planck distribution, Wein’s displacement etc.
  • Basic heat exchanger analysis; classification of heat exchangers.

3. I .C. Engines:

  • Classification, thermodynamic cycles of operation; determination of break power, indicated power, mechanical efficiency, heat balance sheet, interpretation of performance characteristics, petrol, gas and diesel engines.
  • Combustion in SI and CI engines, normal and abnormal combustion; effect of working parameters on knocking, reduction of knocking; Forms of combustion chamber for SI and CI engines; rating of fuels; additives; emission.
  • Different systems of IC engines- fuels; lubricating; cooling and transmission systems. Alternate fuels in IC engines.

4. Steam Engineering:

  • Steam generation- modified Rankine cycle analysis; Modern steam boilers; steam at critical and supercritical pressures; draught equipment; natural and artificial draught; boiler fuels solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. Steam turbines – principle; types; compounding; impulse and reaction turbines; axial thrust.
  • Steam nozzles- flow of steam in convergent and divergent nozzle; pressure at throat for maximum discharge with different initial steam conditions such as wet,
    saturated and superheated, effect of variation of back pressure; supersaturated flow of steam in nozzles, Wilson line.
  • Rankine cycle with internal and external irreversibility; reheat factor; reheating and regeneration, methods of governing; back pressure and pass out turbines.
  • Steam power plants – combined cycle power generation; heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) fired and unfired, cogeneration plants.

5. Refrigeration and air-conditioning:

  • Vapour compression refrigeration cycle – cycle on p-H & T-s diagrams; eco-friendly refrigerants – R134a,123; Systems like evaporators, condensers, compressor, expansion devices. Simple vapour absorption systems.
  • Psychrometry – properties; processes; charts; sensible heating and cooling; humidification and dehumidification effective temperature; air-conditioning load  calculation; simple duct design.

Mechanical Engineering Paper I Syllabus

Paper – I

1. Mechanics:

  • Mechanics of rigid bodies: Equations of equilibrium in space and its application; first and second moments of area; simple problems on friction; kinematics of particles for plane motion; elementary particle dynamics.
  • Mechanics of deformable bodies: Generalized Hooke’s law and its application; design problems on axial stress, shear stress and bearing stress; material properties for dynamic loading; bending shear and stresses in beams;. determination of principle stresses and strains – analytical and graphical; compound and combined stresses; bi-axial stresses – thin walled pressure vessel; material behaviour and design factors for dynamic load; design of circular shafts for bending and torsional load only; deflection of beam for statically determinate problems; theories of failure.

2. Engineering Materials: Basic concepts on structure of solids; common ferrous and non-ferrous materials and their applications; heat-treatment of steels; non-metals- plastics, ceramics, composite materials and nano-materials.

3. Theory of Machines: Kinematic and dynamic analysis of plane mechanisms. Cams, Gears and epicyclic gear trains, flywheels, governors, balancing of rigid rotors, balancing of single and multicylinder engines, linear vibration analysis of mechanical systems (single degree of freedom), Critical speeds and whirling of shafts.

4. Manufacturing Science:

  • Manufacturing Process: Machine tool engineering – Merchant’s force analysis; Taylor’s tool life equation; conventional machining; NC and CNC machining process; jigs and fixtures. Non-conventional machining – EDM, ECM, ultrasonic, water jet machining etc; application of lasers and plasmas; energy rate calculations. Forming and welding processes- standard processes. Metrology – concept of fits and tolerances; tools and gauges; comparators; inspection of length; position; profile and surface finish.
  • Manufacturing Management: System design: factory location- simple OR models; plant layout – methods based; applications of engineering economic analysis and break- even analysis for product selection, process selection and capacity planning; predetermined time standards. System planning; forecasting methods based on regression and decomposition, design and balancing of multi model and stochastic assembly lines; inventory management – probabilistic inventory models for order time and order quantity determination; JIT systems; strategic sourcing; managing inter plant logistics. System operations and control: Scheduling algorithms for job shops; applications of statistical methods for product and process quality control – applications of control charts for mean, range, percent defective, number of defectives and defects per unit; quality cost systems; management of resources, organizations and risks in projects. System improvement: Implementation of systems, such as total quality management, developing and managing flexible, lean and agile organizations.

Mathematics Paper II Syllabus

Paper – II:

(1) Algebra: Groups, subgroups, cyclic groups, cosets, Lagrange’s Theorem, normal subgroups, quotient groups, homomorphism of groups, basic isomorphism theorems, permutation groups, Cayley’s theorem.  Rings, subrings and ideals, homomorphisms of rings; Integral domains, principal ideal domains, Euclidean domains and unique factorization domains; Fields, quotient  fields.

(2) Real Analysis: Real number system as an ordered field with least upper bound property; Sequences, limit of a sequence, Cauchy sequence, completeness of real line; Series  and its convergence, absolute and conditional  convergence of series of real and complex terms, rearrangement of series. Continuity and uniform continuity of functions, properties of continuous functions on compact sets. Riemann integral,  improper integrals; Fundamental theorems of integral calculus. Uniform convergence, continuity, differentiability and integrability for sequences and series of functions; Partial derivatives of functions  of several (two or three) variables, maxima and minima.

(3) Complex Analysis: Analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations, Cauchy’s theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, power series representation of an analytic function, Taylor’s series; Singularities;  Laurent’s series; Cauchy’s residue theorem; Contour integration.

(4) Linear Programming: Linear programming problems, basic solution, basic feasible solution and optimal solution; Graphical method and simplex method of solutions; Duality. Transportation and assignment problems.

(5) Partial differential equations: Family of surfaces in three dimensions and formulation of partial differential equations; Solution of quasilinear partial differential equations of the first order, Cauchy’s method of characteristics; Linear partial differential equations of the second order  with constant coefficients, canonical form; Equation of a vibrating string, heat equation, Laplace equation and their solutions.

(6) Numerical Analysis and Computer programming: Numerical methods: Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations of one variable by bisection, Regula-Falsi and Newton-  Raphson methods; solution of system of linear equations by Gaussian elimination and Gauss-Jordan (direct), Gauss- Seidel(iterative) methods. Newton’s (forward  and backward) interpolation, Lagrange’s interpolation.  Numerical integration: Trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s rules, Gaussian quadrature formula. Numerical solution of ordinary differential  equations: Euler and Runga Kutta-methods. Computer Programming: Binary system; Arithmetic and logical operations on numbers; Octal and Hexadecimal systems;  Conversion to and from decimal systems; Algebra of binary numbers.  Elements of computer systems and concept of memory; Basic logic gates and truth tables, Boolean algebra, normal forms. Representation of unsigned integers, signed integers and reals, double precision reals and long integers.  Algorithms and flow charts for solving numerical analysis problems.

(7) Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics: Generalized coordinates; D’ Alembert’s principle and Lagrange’s equations; Hamilton equations; Moment of inertia; Motion of rigid bodies in two dimensions. Equation of continuity; Euler’s equation of  motion for inviscid flow; Stream-lines, path of a particle; Potential flow; Two-dimensional and axisymmetric motion; Sources and sinks, vortex motion; Navier-Stokes equation for a viscous fluid.

Mathematics Paper I Syllabus

Paper – I:

(1) Linear Algebra: Vector spaces over R and C, linear dependence and independence, subspaces, bases, dimension; Linear transformations, rank and nullity, matrix of a linear transformation. Algebra of Matrices; Row and column reduction, Echelon form, congruence’s and similarity; Rank of a matrix; Inverse of a matrix; Solution of system of linear equations; Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, characteristic polynomial, Cayley-Hamilton theorem, Symmetric, skew-symmetric, Hermitian, skew-Hermitian, orthogonal and unitary matrices and their eigenvalues.

(2) Calculus:  Real numbers, functions of a real variable, limits, continuity, differentiability, meanvalue theorem, Taylor’s theorem with remainders, indeterminate forms, maxima and minima, asymptotes; Curve tracing; Functions of two or three variables: limits, continuity, partial derivatives, maxima and  minima, Lagrange’s method of multipliers, Jacobian. Riemann’s definition of definite integrals; Indefinite integrals; Infinite and improper  integrals; Double and triple integrals (evaluation techniques only); Areas, surface and volumes.

(3) Analytic Geometry: Cartesian and polar coordinates in three dimensions, second degree equations in three variables, reduction to canonical forms, straight lines, shortest distance between two skew lines; Plane, sphere, cone, cylinder, paraboloid, ellipsoid, hyperboloid of one and two sheets and their properties.

(4) Ordinary Differential Equations: Formulation of differential equations; Equations of first order and first degree, integrating factor; Orthogonal trajectory; Equations of first order but not of first degree, Clairaut’s equation, singular solution. Second and higher order linear equations with constant coefficients, complementary function, particular integral and general solution. Second order linear equations with variable coefficients, Euler-Cauchy equation; Determination of complete solution when one solution is known using method of  variation of parameters. Laplace and Inverse Laplace transforms and their properties; Laplace transforms of elementary functions. Application to initial value problems for 2nd order linear equations with constant coefficients.

(5) Dynamics & Statics: Rectilinear motion, simple harmonic motion, motion in a plane, projectiles; constrained motion; Work and energy, conservation of energy; Kepler’s laws, orbits under  central forces. Equilibrium of a system of particles; Work and potential energy, friction; common catenary; Principle of virtual work; Stability of  equilibrium, equilibrium of forces in three dimensions.

(6) Vector Analysis: Scalar and vector fields, differentiation of vector field of a scalar variable; Gradient, divergence and curl in cartesian and cylindrical coordinates; Higher order derivatives; Vector identities and vector equations. Application to geometry: Curves in space, Curvature and torsion; Serret-Frenet’s formulae.  Gauss and Stokes’ theorems, Green’s identities.

Management Paper II Syllabus

Paper – II

1. Quantitative Techniques in Decision Making: Descriptive statistics – tabular, graphical and numerical methods, introduction to probability, discrete and continuous probability distributions, inferential statisticssampling distributions, central limit theorem, hypothesis testing for differences between means and proportions, inf erence about population variances, Chi-square and ANOVA, simple correlation and regression, time series and forecasting, decision theory, index numbers; Linear  programming – problem formulation, simplex method and graphical solution, sensitivity analysis.

2. Production and Operations Management: Fundamentals of operations management;  Organizing for production; Aggregate production planning, capacity planning, plant design: process planning, plant size and scale of operations, Management of facilities; Line balancing; Equipment replacement and maintenance; Production control; Supply chain management – vendor evaluation and audit; Quality management; Statistical process control, Six Sigma; Flexibility and agility in manufacturing systems; World class manufacturing; Project management concepts, R&D management, Management of service operations; Role and importance of materials management, value analysis, make or buy decision; Inventory control, MRP; Waste management.

3. Management Information System: Conceptual foundations of information systems; Information theory; Information resource  management; Types of information systems; Systems development – Overview of systems and design; System development management life-cycle, Designing for online and distributed environments; Implementation and control of project; Trends in information technology; Managing data resources – Organising data; DSS and RDBMS; Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Expert systems, e-Business architecture, e-Governance; Information systems planning, Flexibility in information systems; User involvement; Evaluation of information systems.

4. Government Business Interface: State participation in business, Interaction between Government, Business and different Chambers of Commerce and Industry in India; Government’s policy with regard to Small Scale Industries; Government clearances for establishing a new enterprise; Public Distribution System;  Government control over price and distribution; Consumer Protection Act (CPA) and The Role of voluntary organizations in protecting consumers’ rights; New Industrial Policy of the Government: liberalization, deregulation and privatisation; Indian planning system; Government policy concerning development  of Backward areas/regions; The Responsibilities of the business as well as the Government to protect the environment; Corporate Governance; Cyber Laws.

5. Strategic Management: Business policy as a field of study; Nature and scope of strategic management, Strategic intent, vision, objectives and policies; Process of strategic planning and implementation; Environmental analysis and internal analysis; SWOT analysis; Tools and techniques for strategic analysis – Impact matrix: The experience curve, BCG matrix, GEC mode, Industry analysis, Concept of  value chain; Strategic profile of a firm; Framework for analysing competition; Competitive advantage of a firm; Generic competitive strategies; Growth strategies – expansion, integration and diversification; Concept of core competence, Strategic flexibility; Reinventing strategy; Strategy and structure; Chief Executive and Board; Turnaround management; Management of strategic change; Strategic  alliances, Mergers and Acquisitions; Strategy and corporate evolution in the Indian context.

6. International Business: International Business Environment: Changing composition of trade in goods and services; India’s Foreign Trade: Policy and trends; Financing of International trade; Regional Economic Cooperation; FTAs;  Internationalisation of service firms; International production; Operation Management in International companies; International Taxation; Global competitiveness and technological developments; Global e-Business; Designing global organisational structure and control; Multicultural management; Global business strategy; Global marketing strategies; Export Management; Export- Import procedures; Joint Ventures; Foreign Investment: Foreign direct investment and foreign portfolio investment; Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions; Foreign Exchange Risk Exposure Management; World Financial Markets and International Banking; External Debt Management; Country Risk Analysis.

Management Paper I Syllabus

Paper – I

1. Managerial Function and Process: Concept and Foundations of Management, Evolution of Management Thoughts; Managerial Functions – Planning, Organizing, Controlling; Decision making; Role of Manager, Managerial skills; Entrepreneurship; Management of innovation; Managing in a global environment, Flexible Systems Management; Social responsibility and managerial ethics; Process and customer orientation; Managerial processes on direct and indirect value chain.

2. Organisational Behaviour and Design: Conceptual model of organization behaviour; The individual processes – personality, values and attitude, perception, motivation, learning and reinforcement, work stress and stress management; The dynamics of organization behaviour – power and politics, conflict and negotiation, leadership process and styles, communication; The Organizational Processes – decision making, job design; Classical, Neoclassical and Contingency approaches to organizational design; Organizational theory and design – organizational culture, managing cultural diversity, learning organization; organizational change and development; Knowledge Based Enterprise – systems and processes; Networked and virtual organizations.

3. Human Resource Management: HR challenges; HRM functions; The future challenges of HRM; Strategic Management of human resources; Human resource planning; Job analysis; Job evaluation; Recruitment and selection; Training and development; Promotion and transfer; Performance management; Compensation management and benefits; Employee morale and productivity; Management of organizational climate and Industrial relations; Human resources accounting and audit; Human resource information system; International human resource management.

4. Accounting for Managers: Financial accounting – concept, importance and scope, generally accepted accounting principles, preparation of financial statements with special reference to analysis of a balance sheet and measurement of business income, inventory valuation and depreciation, financial statement analysis, fund flow analysis, the statement of cash flows; Management accounting – concept, need, importance and scope; Cost accounting – records and processes, cost ledger and control accounts, reconciliation and integration between financial and cost accounts; Overhead cost and control, Job and process costing, Budget and budgetary control, Performance budgeting, Zero-base budgeting, relevant costing and costing for decision-making, standard costing and variance analysis, marginal costing and absorption costing.

5. Financial Management: Goals of finance function; Concepts of value and return; Valuation of bonds and shares; Management of working capital: Estimation and financing; Management of cash, receivables, inventory and current liabilities; Cost of capital; Capital budgeting; Financial and operating leverage; Design of capital structure: theories and practices; Shareholder value creation: dividend policy, corporate financial policy and strategy, management of corporate distress and restructuring strategy; Capital and money markets: institutions and instruments; Leasing, hire purchase and venture capital; Regulation of capital market; Risk and return: portfolio theory; CAPM; APT; Financial derivatives: option, futures, swap; Recent reforms in financial sector.

6. Marketing Management: Concept, evolution and scope; Marketing strategy formulation and components of marketing plan; Segmenting and targeting the market; Positioning and differentiating the market offering; Analyzing competition; Analyzing consumer markets; Industrial buyer behaviour; Market research; Product  strategy; Pricing strategies; Designing and managing Marketing channels; Integrated marketing communications; Building customer satisfaction, Value and retention; Services and non-profit marketing; Ethics in marketing; Consumer protection; Internet marketing; Retail management; Customer relationship management; Concept of holistic marketing

Law Paper II Syllabus

Paper – II

Law of Crimes:

  • 1. General principles of criminal liability: Mens rea and actus reus, mens rea in statutory offences.
  • 2. Kinds of punishment and emerging trends as to abolition of capital punishment.
  • 3. Preparation and criminal attempt.
  • 4. General exceptions.
  • 5. Joint and constructive liability.
  • 6. Abetment.
  • 7. Criminal conspiracy.
  • 8. Offences against the State.
  • 9. Offences against public tranquility.
  • 10. Offences against human body.
  • 11. Offences against property.
  • 12. Offences against women.
  • 13. Defamation.
  • 14. Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988.
  • 15. Protection of Civil Rights Act 1955 and subsequent legislative developments.
  • 16. Plea bargaining.

Law of Torts:

  • 1. Nature and definition.
  • 2. Liability based upon fault and strict liability; Absolute liability.
  • 3. Vicarious liability including State liability.
  • 4. General defences.
  • 5. Joint tort feasors.
  • 6. Remedies.
  • 7. Negligence.
  • 8. Defamation.
  • 9. Nuisance.
  • 10. Conspiracy.
  • 11. False imprisonment.
  • 12. Malicious prosecution.
  • 13. Consumer Protection Act, 1986.

Law of Contracts and Mercantile Law:

  • 1. Nature and formation of contract/Econtract.
  • 2. Factors vitiating free consent.
  • 3. Void, voidable, illegal and unenforceable agreements.
  • 4. Performance and discharge of contracts.
  • 5. Quasi- Contracts.
  • 6. Consequences of breach of contract.
  • 7. Contract of indemnity, guarantee and insurance.
  • 8. Contract of agency.
  • 9. Sale of goods and hire purchase.
  • 10. Formation and dissolution of partnership.
  • 11. Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881.
  • 12. Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996.
  • 13. Standard form contracts.

Contemporary Legal Developments

  • 1. Public Interest Litigation.
  • 2. Intellectual property rights – Concept, types/prospects.
  • 3. Information Technology Law including Cyber Laws – Concept, purpose/ prospects.
  • 4. Competition Law- Concept, purpose/ prospects.
  • 5. Alternate Dispute Resolution – Concept, types/prospects.
  • 6. Major statutes concerning environmental law.
  • 7. Right to Information Act.
  • 8. Trial by media.

Law Paper I Syllabus

Paper – I:

Constitutional and Administrative Law:

1. Constitution and Constitutionalism: The distinctive features of the Constitution.

2. Fundamental rights – Public interest litigation; Legal Aid; Legal services authority.

3. Relationship between fundamental rights, directive principles and fundamental duties.

4. Constitutional position of the President and relation with the Council of Ministers.

5. Governor and his powers.

6. Supreme Court and High Courts:
(a) Appointments and transfer.
(b) Powers, functions and jurisdiction.

7. Centre, States and local bodies:
(a) Distribution of legislative powers between the Union and the States.
(b) Local bodies.
(c) Administrative relationship among Union, State and Local Bodies.
(d) Eminent domain – State property – common property – community property.

8. Legislative powers, privileges and immunities.

9. Services under the Union and the States:
(a) Recruitment and conditions of services; Constitutional safeguards; Administrative tribunals.
(b) Union Public Service Commission and State Public Service Commissions – Power and functions
(c) Election Commission – Power and functions.

10. Emergency provisions.

11. Amendment of the Constitution.

12. Principles of natural justice – Emerging trends and judicial approach.

13. Delegated legislation and its constitutionality.

14. Separation of powers and constitutional governance.

15. Judicial review of administrative action.

16. Ombudsman: Lokayukta, Lokpal etc.

International Law:

  • 1. Nature and definition of international law.
  • 2. Relationship between international law and municipal law.
  • 3. State recognition and state succession.
  • 4. Law of the sea: Inland waters, territorial sea, contiguous zone, continental shelf, exclusive economic zone, high seas.
  • 5. Individuals: Nationality, statelessness; Human rights and procedures available for their enforcement.
  • 6. Territorial jurisdiction of States, extradition and asylum.
  • 7. Treaties: Formation, application,  termination and reservation.
  • 8. United Nations: Its principal organs, powers, functions and reform.
  • 9. Peaceful settlement of disputes – different modes.
  • 10. Lawful recourse to force: aggression, self-defence, intervention.
  • 11. Fundamental principles of international humanitarian law – International conventions and contemporary developments.
  • 12. Legality of the use of nuclear weapons; ban on testing of nuclear weapons; Nuclear – non proliferation treaty, CTBT.
  • 13. International terrorism, state sponsored terrorism, hijacking, international criminal court.
  • 14. New international economic order and monetary law: WTO, TRIPS, GATT, IMF, World Bank.
  • 15. Protection and improvement of the human environment: International efforts.

Electrical Engineering Paper II Syllabus

Paper – II

1. Control Systems: Elements of control systems; blockdiagram representation; open-loop & closed-loop systems; principles and applications of feed-back. Control system components. LTI systems: time- omain and transform-domain analysis. Stability: Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Bodeplots and polar plots, Nyquist’s criterion; Design of lead-lad compensators. Proportional, PI, PID controllers. Statevariable representation and analysis of control systems.

2. Microprocessors and Microcomputers: PC organisation; CPU, instruction set, register set, timing diagram, programming, interrupts, memory interfacing, I/O interfacing, programmable peripheral devices.

3. Measurement and Instrumentation: Error analysis; measurement of current, voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurement. Signal conditioning circuit; Electronic measuring instruments: multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum-analyzer, distortion-meter. Transducers: thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain-gauge, piezo-electric crystal.

4. Power Systems: Analysis and Control: Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables; principles of active and reactive power transfer and distribution; per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance matrices; load flow; voltage control and power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components, analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. Concept of system stability: swing curves and equal area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC transmission.

5. Power System Protection: Principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection. Concept of solid state relays. Circuit breakers. Computer aided protection: Introduction; line bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric relays and application of DSP to protection.

6. Digital Communication: Pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM), Digital modulation and demodulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK). Error control coding: error detection and correction, linear block codes, convolution codes. Information measure and source coding. Data networks, 7-layer architecture.

Electrical Engineering Paper I Syllabus

Paper – I

1. Circuit Theory: Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; circuit analysis methods: nodal analysis, mesh analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis: RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant circuits; coupled circuits; balanced 3-phase circuits; Two-port networks.

2. Signals & Systems: Representation of continuous–time and discrete-time signals & systems; LTI systems; convolution; impulse response; time-domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations. Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function. Sampling and recovery of signals DFT, FFT Processing of analog signals through discrete-time systems.

3. E.M. Theory: Maxwell’s equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflection and refraction of plane waves. Transmission line: travelling and standing waves, impedance matching, Smith chart.

4. Analog Electronics: Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits: clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Current mirror; Amplifiers: single and multi-stage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequencyresponse of amplifiers. OPAMP circuits. Filters; sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and OPAMP configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits. Linear and switching power supplies.

5. Digital Electronics: Boolean algebra; minimization of Boolean  functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators, timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories. Logic implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PLA, FPGA).

6. Energy Conversion: Principles of electromechanical energy conversion: Torque and emf in rotating machines. DC machines: characteristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors; Transformers: principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase transformers. 3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines: characteristics and preformance analysis; speed control.

7. Power Electronics and Electric Drives: Semiconductor power devices: diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET–static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; hase control rectifiers; bridge converters: fully-controlled and half-controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; DC-DC converters; Switch mode inverter; basic concepts of speed control of DC and AC Motor drives applications of variable-speed drives.

8. Analog Communication: Random variables: continuous, discrete; probability, probability functions. Statistical averages; probability models; Random signals and noise: white noise, noise equivalent bandwidth; signal transmission with noise; signal to noise ratio. Linear CW modulation: Amplitude modulation: DSB, DSB-SC and SSB. Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and Frequency modulation: PM & FM signals; narrowband FM; generation & detection of FM and PM, Deemphasis, Preemphasis. CW modulation system: Superhetrodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers, phase locked loop, SSB receiver Signal to noise ratio calculation for AM and FM receivers.