Zoology Paper II Syllabus

Paper – II: Zoology Syllabus

1. Cell Biology: 
(a) Structure and function of cell and its organelles (nucleus, plasma membrane, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, and lysosomes), cell division (mitosis and meiosis), mitotic spindle and mitotic apparatus, chromosome movements, chromosome type polytene and lambrush, organization of chromatin, heterochromatin, Cell cycle regulation.
(b) Nucleic acid topology, DNA motif,  DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, translation, protein foldings and transport.

2. Genetics:
(a) Modern concept of gene, split gene, genetic regulation, genetic code.
(b) Sex chromosomes and their evolution, sex determination in Drosophila and man.
(c) Mendel’s laws of inheritance, recombination, linkage, multiple alleles, genetics of blood groups, pedigree analysis, hereditary diseases in man.
(d) Mutations and mutagenesis.
(e) Recombinant DNA technology; plasmid, cosmid, artificial chromosomes as vectors, transgenic, DNA cloning and whole animal cloning (principles and methods).
(f) Gene regulation and expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
(g) Signal molecules, cell death, defects in signaling pathway and consequences.
(h) RFLP, RAPD and AFLP and application of RFLP in DNA finger printing, ribozyme technologies, human genome project, genomics and protomics.

3. Evolution:
(a) Theories of origin of life.
(b) Theories of evolution; Natural selection, role of mutations in evolution, evolutionary patterns, molecular drive, mimicry, variation, isolation and speciation.
(c) Evolution of horse, elephant and man using fossil data.
(d) Hardy-Weinberg Law.
(e) Continental drift and distribution of animals.

4. Systematics: Zoological nomenclature, international code, cladistics, molecular taxonomy and biodiversity.

5. Biochemistry:
(a) Structure and role of carbohydrates, fats, fatty acids and cholesterol, proteins and amino-acids, nucleic acids. Bioenergetics.
b) Glycolysis and Kreb cycle, oxidation and reduction, oxidative phosphorylation, energy conservation and release, ATP cycle, cyclic AMP – its structure and role.
(c) Hormone classification (steroid and peptide hormones), biosynthesis and functions.
(d) Enzymes: types and mechanisms of action.
(e) Vitamins and co-enzymes
(f) Immunoglobulin and immunity.

6. Physiology (with special reference to mammals):
(a) Composition and constituents of blood; blood groups and Rh factor in man, factors and mechanism of coagulation, iron metabolism, acid-base balance, thermo-regulation, anticoagulants.
(b) Haemoglobin: Composition, types and role in transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
(c) Digestion and absorption: Role of salivary glands, liver, pancreas and intestinal glands.
(d) Excretion: nephron and regulation of urine formation; osmo-regulation and excretory product
(e) Muscles: Types, mechanism of contraction of skeletal muscles, effects of exercise on muscles.
(f) Neuron: nerve impulse – its conduction and synaptic transmission, neurotransmitters.
(g) Vision, hearing and olfaction in man.
(h) Physiology of reproduction, puberty and menopause in human.

7. Developmental Biology:
(a) Gametogenesis; spermatogenesis, composition of semen, in vitro and in vivo capacitation of mammalian sperm, Oogenesis, totipotency; fertilization, morphogenesis and morphogen, blastogenesis, establishment of body axes formation, fate map, gestulation in frog and chick; genes in development in chick, homeotic genes, development of eye and heart, placenta in mammals.
(b) Cell lineage, cell-to cell interaction, Genetic and induced teratogenesis, role of thyroxine in control of metamorphosis in amphibia, paedogenesis and neoteny, cell death, aging.
(c) Developmental genes in man, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, cloning.
(d) Stem cells: Sources, types and their use in human welfare.
(e) Biogenetic law.

Zoology Paper I Syllabus

Paper – I: Zoology Syllabus

1. Non-chordata and Chordata:
(a) Classification and relationship of various phyla up to subclasses: Acoelomate and Coelomate, Protostomes and Deuterostomes, Bilateria and Radiata; Status of Protista, Parazoa, Onychophora and Hemichordata; Symmetry.
(b) Protozoa: Locomotion, nutrition, reproduction, sex; General features and life history of Paramaecium, Monocystis, Plasmodium and Leishmania.
(c) Porifera: Skeleton, canal system and reproduction.
(d) Cnidaria: Polymorphism, defensive structures and their mechanism; coral reefs and their formation; metagenesis; general features and life history of Obelia and Aurelia.
(e) Platyhelminthes: Parasitic adaptation; general features and life history of Fasciola and Taenia and their pathogenic symptoms.
(f) Nemathelminthes: General features, life history, parasitic adaptation of Ascaris and Wuchereria.
(g) Annelida: Coelom and metamerism; modes of life in polychaetes; general features and life history of Nereis, earthworm and leach.
(h) Arthropoda: Larval forms and parasitism in Crustacea; vision and respiration in arthropods (Prawn, cockroach and scorpion); modification of mouth  parts in insects (cockroach, mosquito, housefly, honey bee and butterfly); metamorphosis in insect and its hormonal regulation, social behaviour of Apis and termites.
(i) Mollusca: Feeding, respiration, locomotion, general features and life history of Lamellidens, Pila and Sepia, torsion and detorsion in gastropods.
(j) Echinodermata: Feeding, respiration, locomotion, larval forms, general features and life history of Asterias.
(k) Protochordata: Origin of chordates; general features and life history of Branchiostoma and Herdmania.
(l) Pisces: Respiration, locomotion and migration.
(m) Amphibia: Origin of tetrapods, parental care, paedomorphosis.
(n) Reptilia: Origin of reptiles, skull types, status of Sphenodon and crocodiles.
(o) Aves: Origin of birds, flight adaptation, igration.
(p) Mammalia: Origin of mammals, dentition, general features of egg laying mammals, pouched-mammals, aquatic mammals and primates, endocrine glands (pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads) and their interrelationships.
(q) Comparative functional anatomy of various systems of vertebrates (integument and its derivatives, endoskeleton, locomotory organs, digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system including heart and aortic arches, urino-genital system, brain and sense organs (eye and ear).

2. Ecology:
(a) Biosphere: Concept of biosphere; biomes, Biogeochemical cycles, Human induced changes in atmosphere including green house effect, ecological succession, biomes and ecotones, community ecology. (b) Concept of ecosystem; structure and function of ecosystem, types of ecosystem, ecological succession, ecological adaptation.
(c) Population; characteristics, population dynamics, population stabilization.
(d) Biodiversity and diversity conservation of natural resources.
(e) Wildlife of India.
(f) Remote sensing for sustainable development.
(g) Environmental biodegradation, pollution and its impact on biosphere and its prevention.

3. Ethology:
(a) Behaviour: Sensory filtering, reponsive-ness, sign stimuli, learning and memory, instinct, habituation, conditioning, imprinting.
(b) Role of hormones in drive; role of pheromones in alarm spreading; crypsis, predator detection, predator tactics, social hierarchies in primates, social organization in insects.
(c) Orientation, navigation, homing, biological rhythms, biological clock, tidal, seasonal and circadian rhythms.
(d) Methods of studying animal behaviour including sexual conflict, selfishness, kinship and altruism.

4. Economic Zoology:
(a) Apiculture, sericulture, lac culture, carp culture, pearl culture, prawn culture, vermiculture.
(b) Major infectious and communicable diseases (malaria, filaria, tuberculosis, cholera and AIDS) their vectors, pathogens and prevention.
(c) Cattle and livestock diseases, their pathogen (helminthes) and vectors (ticks, mites, Tabanus, Stomoxys).
(d) Pests of sugar cane (Pyrilla perpusiella) oil seed (Achaea janata) and rice (Sitophilus oryzae).
(e) Transgenic animals.
(f) Medical biotechnology, human genetic disease and genetic counselling, gene therapy.
(g) Forensic biotechnology.

5. Biostatistics: Designing of experiments; null hypothesis; correlation, regression, distribution and measure of central tendency, chi square, student-test, F-test (one-way & two-way Ftest).

6. Instrumentation Methods:
(a) Spectrophotometer, phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy, radioactive tracer, ultra centrifuge, gel electrophoresis, PCR, ELISA, FISH and chromosome painting.
(b) Electron microscopy (TEM, SEM).

Physics paper II Syllabus

PAPER – II: Physics Syllabus

1. Quantum Mechanics: Wave-particle dualitiy; Schroedinger equation and expectation values; Uncertainty principle; Solutions of the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation for a free particle (Gaussian wave-packet), particle in a box, particle in a finite well, linear harmonic oscillator; Reflection and transmission by a  step potential and by a rectangular barrier; Particle in a three dimensional box, density of states, free electron theory of metals;  Angular momentum; Hydrogen atom; Spin half particles, properties of Pauli spin matrices.

2. Atomic and Molecular Physics: Stern-Gerlach experiment, electron spin, fine structure of hydrogen atom; L-S coupling, J-J coupling; Spectroscopic notation of atomic states; Zeeman effect; Frank- Condon principle and applications; Elementary theory of rotational, vibratonal and electronic spectra of diatomic molecules; Raman effect and molecular structure; Laser Raman spectroscopy; Importance of neutral hydrogen atom, molecular hydrogen and molecular hydrogen ion in astronomy; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Elementary theory and applications of NMR and EPR; Elementary ideas about Lamb shift and its significance.

3. Nuclear and Particle Physics: Basic nuclear properties-size, binding energy, angular momentum, parity, magnetic moment; Semi-empirical mass formula and applications, mass parabolas; Ground state of deuteron, magnetic moment and non-central forces; Meson theory of nuclear  forces; Salient features of nuclear forces;  Shell model of the nucleus – successes and limitations; Violation of parity in beta decay; Gamma decay and internal conversion;  Elementary ideas about Mossbauer spectroscopy; Q-value of nuclear reactions; Nuclear fission and fusion, energy production in stars; Nuclear reactors. Classification of elementary particles and their interactions; Conservation laws; Quark structure of hadrons; Field quanta of electroweak and strong interactions; Elementary ideas about unification of forces; Physics of neutrinos.

4. Solid State Physics, Devices and Electronics: Crystalline and amorphous structure of matter; Different crystal systems, space groups; Methods of determination of crystal structure; X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies; Band theory of solids – conductors, insulators and semiconductors; Thermal properties of solids, specific heat, Debye theory; Magnetism:  dia, para and ferromagnetism; Elements of superconductivity, Meissner effect, Josephson junctions and applications;  Elementary ideas about high temperature superconductivity. Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors; pn- p and n-p-n transistors; Amplifiers and  oscillators; Op-amps; FET, JFET and MOSFET; Digital electronics-Boolean identities, De Morgan’s laws, logic gates and truth tables; Simple logic circuits; Thermistors, solar cells; Fundamentals of microprocessors and digital computers.`

Physics paper I Syllabus

Paper – I: Physics Syllabus

1. (a) Mechanics of Particles: Laws of motion; conservation of energy and momentum, applications to rotating frames, centripetal and Coriolis accelerations; Motion under a central force; Conservation of angular momentum, Kepler’s laws; Fields and potentials; Gravitational field  and potential due to spherical bodies, Gauss and Poisson equations, gravitational self-energy; Two-body problem; Reduced  mass; Rutherford scattering; Centre of mass and laboratory reference  frames.

(b) Mechanics of Rigid Bodies: System of particles; Centre of mass, angular momentum, equations of motion; Conservation theorems for energy, momentum  and angular momentum; Elastic and inelastic collisions; Rigid body; Degrees of freedom, Euler’s theorem, angular velocity,  angular momentum, moments of inertia, theorems of parallel and perpendicular axes, equation of motion for rotation;  Molecular rotations (as rigid bodies); Di  and tri-atomic molecules; Precessional motion; top, gyroscope.

(c) Mechanics of Continuous Media:  Elasticity, Hooke’s law and elastic constants of isotropic solids and their inter-relation; Streamline (Laminar) flow, viscosity,  Poiseuille’s equation, Bernoulli’s equation, Stokes’ law and applications.

(d) Special Relativity: Michelson-Morley experiment and its implications; Lorentz transformations-length contraction, time dilation, addition of relativistic  velocities, aberration and Doppler effect, mass-energy  relation, simple applications to a decay process; Four dimensional  momentum vector; Covariance of equations of physics.

2. Waves and Optics:

(a) Waves: Simple harmonic motion, damped oscillation, forced oscillation and resonance; Beats; Stationary waves in a string; Pulses  and wave packets; Phase and group velocities; Reflection and Refraction from  Huygens’ principle.

(b) Geometrical Optics: Laws of reflection and refraction from Fermat’s principle; Matrix method in  paraxial optics-thin lens formula, nodal planes, system of two thin lenses, chromatic  and spherical aberrations.

(c) Interference: Interference of light-Young’s experiment,  Newton’s rings, interference by thin films, Michelson interferometer; Multiple beam  interference and Fabry-Perot interferometer.

(d) Diffraction: Fraunhofer diffraction-single slit, double slit, diffraction grating, resolving power; Diffraction by a circular aperture and the Airy pattern; Fresnel diffraction: half-period zones and zone plates, circular aperture.

(e) Polarization and Modern Optics: Production and detection of linearly and circularly polarized light; Double refraction, quarter wave plate; Optical activity; Principles of fibre optics, attenuation; Pulse dispersion in step index and parabolic index  fibres; Material dispersion, single mode fibres; Lasers-Einstein A and B coefficients; Ruby and He-Ne lasers; Characteristics of laser light-spatial and temporal coherence; Focusing of laser beams;  Three-level scheme for laser operation; Holography and simple applications.

3. Electricity and Magnetism:

(a) Electrostatics and Magnetostatics: Laplace and Poisson equations in electrostatics and their applications; Energy of a system of charges, multipole expansion of  scalar potential; Method of images and its applications; Potential and field due to a  dipole, force and torque on a dipole in an  external field; Dielectrics, polarization; Solutions to boundary-value problems-conducting  and dielectric spheres in a uniform  electric field; Magnetic shell, uniformly magnetized sphere; Ferromagnetic materials, hysteresis, energy loss.

(b) Current Electricity: Kirchhoff’s laws and their applications; Biot-Savart law, Ampere’s law, Faraday’s law, Lenz’ law; Self-and mutual-inductances; Mean and r m s values in AC circuits;  DC and AC circuits with R, L and C  components; Series and parallel resonances;  Quality factor; Principle of transformer.

(c) Electromagnetic Waves and Blackbody Radiation: Displacement current and Maxwell’s equations; Wave equations in vacuum, Poynting  theorem; Vector and scalar potentials; Electromagnetic  field tensor, covariance of  Maxwell’s equations; Wave equations in isotropic dielectrics, reflection and refraction  at the boundary of two dielectrics; Fresnel’s relations; Total internal reflection; Normal and anomalous dispersion; Rayleigh scattering; Blackbody radiation and Planck’s radiation law, Stefan-  Boltzmann law, Wien’s displacement law and Rayleigh-Jeans’ law.

4. Thermal and Statistical Physics:

(a) Thermodynamics: Laws of thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible processes, entropy; Isothermal, adiabatic, isobaric, isochoric processes and entropy changes; Otto and Diesel engines, Gibbs’ phase rule and chemical potential;  van der Waals equation of state of a real gas, critical constants; Maxwell-Boltzman distribution of molecular velocities, transport  phenomena, equipartition and virial theorems; Dulong-Petit, Einstein, and  Debye’s theories of specific heat of solids; Maxwell relations and applications; Clausius- Clapeyron equation; Adiabatic demagnetisation, Joule-Kelvin effect and liquefaction of gases.

(b) Statistical Physics: Macro and micro states, statistical distributions, Maxwell-Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distributions, applications to specific heat of gases and blackbody  radiation; Concept of negative temperatures.

Philosophy Paper II Syllabus

Paper – II

Socio-Political Philosophy:

  1. Social and Political Ideals: Equality, Justice, Liberty.
  2. Sovereignty: Austin, Bodin, Laski, Kautilya.
  3. Individual and State: Rights; Duties and Accountability
  4. Forms of Government: Monarchy; Theocracy and Democracy.
  5. Political Ideologies: Anarchism; Marxism and Socialism
  6. Humanism; Secularism; Multiculturalism.
  7. Crime and Punishment: Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide, Capital Punishment.
  8. Development and Social Progress.
  9. Gender Discrimination: Female Foeticide, Land and Property Rights; Empowernment.
  10. Caste Discrimination: Gandhi and Ambedkar

Philosophy of Religion:

  1. Notions of God: Attributes; Relation to Man and the World. (Indian and Western).
  2. Proofs for the Existence of God and their Critique (Indian and Western).
  3. Problem of Evil.
  4. Soul: Immortality; Rebirth and Liberation.
  5. Reason, Revelation and Faith.
  6. Religious Experience: Nature and Object (Indian and Western).
  7. Religion without God.
  8. Religion and Morality.
  9. Religious Pluralism and the Problem of Absolute Truth.
  10. Nature of Religious Language: Analogical and Symbolic; Cognitivist and Noncognitive.

Philosophy Paper I Syllabus

Paper – I

History and Problems of Philosophy:

1. Plato and Aristotle: Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality.

2. Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz): Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom.

3. Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism.

4. Kant: Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space and Time; Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of God

5. Hegel: Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism

6. Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein: Defence of Commonsense; Refutation of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture Theory of Meaning; Saying and Showing.

7. Logical Positivism: Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.

8. Later Wittgenstein: Meaning and Use; Language- games; Critique of Private Language.

9. Phenomenology (Husserl): Method; Theory of Essences; Avoidance of Psychologism.

10. Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger): Existence and Essence; Choice, Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Being-in-the –world and Temporality.

11. Quine and Strawson: Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars and Persons.

12. Carvaka : Theory of Knowledge; Rejection of Transcendent Entities.

13. Jainism: Theory of Reality; Saptabhaòginaya; Bondage and Liberation.

14. Schools of Buddhism: Pratîtyasamutpada; Ksanikavada, Nairatmyavada

15. Nyaya- Vaiúesika: Theory of Categories; Theory of Appearance; Theory of Pramana; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation.

16. Samkhya: Prakrti; Purusa; Causation; Liberation

17. Yoga: Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya.

18. Mimamsa: Theory of Knowledge

19. Schools of Vedanta: Brahman; Îúvara; Atman; Jiva; Jagat; Maya; Avidya; Adhyasa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda

20. Aurobindo: Evolution, Involution; Integral Yoga.

Medical Science Paper II Syllabus

Paper – II

1. General Medicine: Etiology, clinical features, diagnosis and principles of management (including prevention) of: – Tetanus, Rabies, AIDS, Dengue, Kala-azar, Japanese Encephalitis.  Etiology, clinical features, diagnosis and principles of management of: Ischaemic heart disease, pulmonary embolism. Bronchial asthma.  Pleural effusion, tuberculosis, Malabsorption syndromes, acid peptic diseases, Viral hepatitis and cirrhosis of liver. Glomerulonerphritis and pyelonephritis, renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, renovascular hypertension, complications of diabetes mellitus, coagulation disorders, leukemia, Hypo and hyper thyrodism, meningitis  and encephalitis. Imaging in medical problems, ultrasound, echocardiogram, CT scan, MRI. Anxiety and Depressive Psychosis and schizophrenia and ECT.

2. Pediatrics: Immunization, Baby friendly hospital, congenital cyanotic heart disease, respiratory distress syndrome, broncho – pneumonias, kernicterus. IMNCI classification and management, PEM grading and management.  ARI and Diarrhea of under five and their management.

3. Dermatology: Psoriasis, Allergic dermatitis, scabies, eczema, vitiligo, Stevan Johnson’s syndrome, Lichen Planus.

4. General Surgery: Clinical features, causes, diagnosis and principles of management of cleft palate, harelip. Laryngeal tumor, oral and esophageal  tumors. Peripheral arterial diseases, varicose  veins, coarctation of aorta Tumors of Thyroid, Adrenal Glands Abscess, cancer, fibroadenoma and adenosis of breast.  Bleeding peptic ulcer, tuberculosis of bowel, ulcerative colitis, cancer stomach. Renal mass,cancer Prostate..  Haemothorax, stones of Gall bladder, Kidney, Ureter and Urinary Bladder. Management of surgical conditions of Rectum, Anus and Anal canal, Gall bladder  and Bile ducts  Splenomegaly, cholecystitis, portal hypertension, liver abscess, peritonitis, carcinoma head of pancreas. Fractures of spine, Colles’ fracture and bone tumors. Endoscopy Laprascopic Surgery.

5. Obstetrics and Gynaecology including Family Planning: Diagnosis of pregnancy. Labour management, complications of 3rd  stage, Antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage, resuscitation of the newborn, Management of abnormal lie and difficult labour, Management of small for date or premature newborn.  Diagnosis and management of anemia. Preeclampsia and Toxaemias of pregnancy, Management of  Post menopausal Syndrome. Intra-uterine devices, pills, tubectomy and vasectomy. Medical termination of pregnancy including legal aspects. Cancer cervix. Leucorrhoea, pelvic pain, infertility, dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB), amenorrhoea, Fibroid and prolapse of uterus.

6. Community Medicine (Preventive and Social Medicine): Principles, methods, approach and measurements of Epidemiology Nutrition, nutritional diseases / disorders & Nutrition Programmes. Health information Collection, Analysis and Presentation. Objectives, components and critical analysis of National programmes for control/ eradication of: Malaria, Kala-azar, Filaria and Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, STDs and Dengue Critical appraisal of Health care delivery system. Health management and administration: Techniques, Tools, Programme Implementation and Evaluation. Objective, Component, Goals and Status of Reproductive and Child Health, National Rural Health Mission and Millennium Development  Goals Management of hospital and industrial waste.

Medical Science Paper I Syllabus

Paper – I

1. Human Anatomy: Applied anatomy including blood and nerve supply of upper and lower limbs and joints of shoulder, hip and knee. Gross anatomy, blood supply and lymphatic drainage of tongue, thyroid, mammary  gland, stomach, liver, prostate, gonads and uterus. Applied anatomy of diaphragm, perineum and inguinal region.  Clinical anatomy of kidney, urinary bladder, uterine tubes, vas deferens. Embryology: Placenta and placental barrier. Development of heart, gut, kidney,  uterus, ovary, testis and their common congenital abnormalities. Central and peripheral autonomic nervous  system : Gross and clinical anatomy of ventricles of brain, circulation of cerebrospinal  fluid; Neural pathways and lesions of cutaneous sensations, hearing and vision; Cranial nerves, distribution and  clinical significance; Components of autonomic nervous system.

2. Human Physiology: Conduction and transmission of impulse, mechanism of contraction, neuromuscular transmission, reflexes, control of equilibrium, posture and muscle tone, descending  pathways, functions of cerebellum, basal ganglia, Physiology of sleep and  consciousness. Endocrine system: Mechanism of action of hormones, formation, secretion, transport,  metabolism, function and regulation of secretion of pancreas and pituitary gland.  Physiology of reproductive system: Menstrual cycle, lactation, pregnancy. Blood: Development, regulation and fate  of blood cells. Cardio-vascular, cardiac output, blood pressure, regulation of cardiovascular  functions;

3. Biochemistry: Organ function tests-liver, kidney, thyroid Protein synthesis. Vitamins and minerals. Restriction fragment length polymorphism  (RFLP). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Radio – immunoassays (RIA).

4. Pathology: Inflammation and repair, disturbances of growth and cancer, Pathogenesis and histopathology of rheumatic and ischemic  heart disease and diabetes mellitus. Differentiation between benign, malignant,  primary and metastatic malignancies, Pathogenesis and histopathology of bronchogenic carcinoma, carcinoma breast, oral cancer, cancer cervix, leukemia, Etiology, pathogenesis and histopathology of – cirrhosis liver, glomerulonephritis, tuberculosis,  acute osteomyelitis.

5. Microbiology:  Humoral and cell mediated immunity Diseases caused by and laboratory diagnosis of- l Meningococcus, Salmonella l Shigella, Herpes, Dengue, Polio l HIV/AIDS, Malaria, E. Histolytica,  Giardia l Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus

6. Pharmacology: Mechanism of action and side effects of the following drugs l Antipyretics and analgesics, Antibiotics,  Antimalaria; Antikala-azar,Antidiabetics l Antihypertensive, Antidiuretics, General and  cardiac vasodilators, Antiviral, Antiparasitic, Antifungal, Immunosuppressants l Anticancer

7. Forensic Medicine and Toxicology: Forensic examination of injuries and wounds; Examination of blood and seminal stains; poisoning, sedative overdose, hanging, drowning, burns, DNA and finger print study.

Mechanical Engineering Paper II Syllabus

Paper – II

1. Thermodynamics, Gas Dynamics and Turbine:

  • Basic concept of First –law and second law of Thermodynamics; concept of entropy and reversibility; availability and unavailability and irreversibility.
  • Classification and properties of fluids; incompressible and compressible fluids flows; effect of Mach number and compressibility; continuity momentum and  energy equations; normal and oblique shocks; one dimensional isentropic flow; flow or fluids in duct with frictions that transfer.
  • Flow through fans, blowers and compressors; axial and centrifugal flow configuration; design of fans and compressors; single problems compresses and turbine cascade; open and closed cycle gas turbines; work done in the gas turbine; reheat and regenerators.

2. Heat Transfer:

  • Conduction heat transfer- general conduction equation – Laplace, Poisson and Fourier equations; Fourier law of conduction; one dimensional steady state heat conduction applied to simple wall, solid and hollow cylinder & spheres.
  • Convection heat transfer- Newton’s law of convection; free and forces convection; heat transfer during laminar and turbulent flow of an incompressible fluid over a flat plate; concepts of Nusselt number, hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layer their thickness; Prandtl number; analogy between heat and momentum transfer- Reynolds, Colbum, Prandtl analogies; heat transfer during laminar and turbulent flow through horizontal tubes; free convection from horizontal and vertical plates.
  • Black body radiation – basic radiation laws such as Stefan-Boltzman, Planck distribution, Wein’s displacement etc.
  • Basic heat exchanger analysis; classification of heat exchangers.

3. I .C. Engines:

  • Classification, thermodynamic cycles of operation; determination of break power, indicated power, mechanical efficiency, heat balance sheet, interpretation of performance characteristics, petrol, gas and diesel engines.
  • Combustion in SI and CI engines, normal and abnormal combustion; effect of working parameters on knocking, reduction of knocking; Forms of combustion chamber for SI and CI engines; rating of fuels; additives; emission.
  • Different systems of IC engines- fuels; lubricating; cooling and transmission systems. Alternate fuels in IC engines.

4. Steam Engineering:

  • Steam generation- modified Rankine cycle analysis; Modern steam boilers; steam at critical and supercritical pressures; draught equipment; natural and artificial draught; boiler fuels solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. Steam turbines – principle; types; compounding; impulse and reaction turbines; axial thrust.
  • Steam nozzles- flow of steam in convergent and divergent nozzle; pressure at throat for maximum discharge with different initial steam conditions such as wet,
    saturated and superheated, effect of variation of back pressure; supersaturated flow of steam in nozzles, Wilson line.
  • Rankine cycle with internal and external irreversibility; reheat factor; reheating and regeneration, methods of governing; back pressure and pass out turbines.
  • Steam power plants – combined cycle power generation; heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) fired and unfired, cogeneration plants.

5. Refrigeration and air-conditioning:

  • Vapour compression refrigeration cycle – cycle on p-H & T-s diagrams; eco-friendly refrigerants – R134a,123; Systems like evaporators, condensers, compressor, expansion devices. Simple vapour absorption systems.
  • Psychrometry – properties; processes; charts; sensible heating and cooling; humidification and dehumidification effective temperature; air-conditioning load  calculation; simple duct design.

Mechanical Engineering Paper I Syllabus

Paper – I

1. Mechanics:

  • Mechanics of rigid bodies: Equations of equilibrium in space and its application; first and second moments of area; simple problems on friction; kinematics of particles for plane motion; elementary particle dynamics.
  • Mechanics of deformable bodies: Generalized Hooke’s law and its application; design problems on axial stress, shear stress and bearing stress; material properties for dynamic loading; bending shear and stresses in beams;. determination of principle stresses and strains – analytical and graphical; compound and combined stresses; bi-axial stresses – thin walled pressure vessel; material behaviour and design factors for dynamic load; design of circular shafts for bending and torsional load only; deflection of beam for statically determinate problems; theories of failure.

2. Engineering Materials: Basic concepts on structure of solids; common ferrous and non-ferrous materials and their applications; heat-treatment of steels; non-metals- plastics, ceramics, composite materials and nano-materials.

3. Theory of Machines: Kinematic and dynamic analysis of plane mechanisms. Cams, Gears and epicyclic gear trains, flywheels, governors, balancing of rigid rotors, balancing of single and multicylinder engines, linear vibration analysis of mechanical systems (single degree of freedom), Critical speeds and whirling of shafts.

4. Manufacturing Science:

  • Manufacturing Process: Machine tool engineering – Merchant’s force analysis; Taylor’s tool life equation; conventional machining; NC and CNC machining process; jigs and fixtures. Non-conventional machining – EDM, ECM, ultrasonic, water jet machining etc; application of lasers and plasmas; energy rate calculations. Forming and welding processes- standard processes. Metrology – concept of fits and tolerances; tools and gauges; comparators; inspection of length; position; profile and surface finish.
  • Manufacturing Management: System design: factory location- simple OR models; plant layout – methods based; applications of engineering economic analysis and break- even analysis for product selection, process selection and capacity planning; predetermined time standards. System planning; forecasting methods based on regression and decomposition, design and balancing of multi model and stochastic assembly lines; inventory management – probabilistic inventory models for order time and order quantity determination; JIT systems; strategic sourcing; managing inter plant logistics. System operations and control: Scheduling algorithms for job shops; applications of statistical methods for product and process quality control – applications of control charts for mean, range, percent defective, number of defectives and defects per unit; quality cost systems; management of resources, organizations and risks in projects. System improvement: Implementation of systems, such as total quality management, developing and managing flexible, lean and agile organizations.